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1991LOUIS DREYFUS ARMATEURS operated a strategic diversification of its fleet and activities. A seismic research activity is launched in partnership with CGG Veritas. This oceanographic survey activity starts with the CGG Mistral ship and will be joined shortly after by CGG Fohn and CGG Harmattan. Around the same time, LOUIS DREYFUS ARMATEURS reinforces its dry bulk activities in Indonesia thanks to its acquisition of Orchard Maritime Services Pte Ltd, a company specialized in coal transportation by means of towed barges.



1992The group’s bulk carrier fleet is reinforced. Two 165,000 tpl vessels are successively launched in Poland: Pierre LD (V) in 1992 and Jean LD (IV) in 1993.

They are closely followed by two similar ships: Gerard LD (IV) in 1994 and Leopold LD in 1996. Meanwhile a VLCC oil tanker is transformed into a stocking vessel for oil products: Spec LDE 888. A year later in 1993, LD converts an underwater drilling vessel into a high depth wreck retriever vessel. It is renamed the Deepsea Worker.



1995 : To face Indonesia’s growing coal transportation needs, LD orders two handysize vessels fitted out with cranes: Batu and Bararespectively delivered in 1997 and 1998.

1997 : Following Philippe Louis-Dreyfus’ arrival at the helm of LOUIS DREYFUS ARMATEURS, four capesize vessels were ordered. Two of them were built in Japan, Pierre LD and Charles LD, and two others were built in South Korea: Eric LD and Philippe LD.

These four vessels were all delivered in 1999. 
Furthermore, the Channel Commander, a used NKK 150 000 t type vessel is bought and renamed the Loire Ore.

LDA 1998 Loire Ore

Three additional used ships are bought: Marine HunterCordillera and the Marine Courage.

Philippe Louis-Dreyfus decided to further develop the group’s maritime branch by investing in offshore industrial activities. Noticing the extreme volatility of dry bulk freight – LD’s historical activity, he drove the group’s strategic diversification towards high added-value industrial partnerships.